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A programmable machine used to perform a series of arithmetic or logical operations automatically in a sequence is termed as a computer. In the mid-20th century, that is, from the year 1940 to 1945 the first electronic computers were established. The first computers were very large in size and the power consumed by it was equivalent to that of several hundreds of modern personal computers. Integrated circuits are used to develop the modern computers and therefore they are comparatively more capable than the early machines. The computer can solve more than one kind of problem by merely changing the sequence of operations. Some form of memory for data storage is available in a computer. Arithmetic and logic operations are carried out using one element. The order of operations can be altered using the information present in the sequencing and control element. The information from an external source enters and the results of operations exit through peripheral devices. CPU is the computer's processing unit where the data is read, manipulated and stored. Different types of computers like simple computers, personal computers and embedded computers are present today. Mobile devices use simple computers where small batteries are used for its working. Embedded computers re used in industrial robots, toys, fighter aircrafts, mp3 players, etc.

The computer runs on specified programs which are supplied by the programming languages. The programming languages are short and perfect written languages. A compiler or an assembler is used to translate the programming language into the machine code before the computer is run while an interpreter directly makes the translation when the computer is at work. There are programming languages for general purpose as well as specialized purpose. The arithmetic logic unit (ALU), the control unit, the memory, and the input and output devices (collectively termed as I/O) are the four main parts of the general purpose computer which are interconnected by busses prepared by groups of wires. Numerous minute electrical circuits are present in these parts which are worked on electronic switch. a bit (binary digit) of information is represented by every circuit. "1" and "0" simultaneously denote that the circuit is on or off. Since logic gates are used to arrange the circuits, the state of some circuits is controlled by some other circuits.

The central processing unit or CPU is the combination of the control unit, ALU, registers, and basic I/O. Earlier separate components were used for making CPUs. But later in mid 1970s microprocessor, a single integrated circuit was used for constructing CPUs. The study of the hypothetical foundations of information and calculation and of practical procedures used in the implementation and application of computer systems is called computer science. Information are created, described and transformed using algorithmic processes. Suitable generalization to mold complex systems is also invented by computer scientists.



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