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Hiawatha and the Iroquois Confederation- A Study in Anthropology. A Paper Read at the Cincinnati Meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, in August, 1881, under the Title of, "A Lawgiver of the Stone Age." By Horatio Hale

This paper presentation by Horatio Hale deals with a very complex topic, the mental power of primitive man. The paper begins with raising certain simple questions regarding the intellectual capacity of the primitive man. Horatio Hale closely examines the most prevalent answer which assumes that primitive man has very low intellectual level and it developed with the human civilization. He rebuts this common assumption by describing the various studies and information available on the Aryans of Central Asia and other vanished communities who left behind the traces proving their high intelligence. The paper specially focuses on the Iroquois tribe which was famous among Europeans as Five nations. It describes the highly evolved government and politics resembling the modern federal government and principles of self government and diplomacy. The analytical approach made in this paper will surely give a new dimension to this topic.

This paper gives the outline of the history of the Iroquois tribe, Mohawks, Oneidas, Senecas, Cayugas and Onondagas. It is claimed that all have similar origin but later part of history is full of the war and skirmishes between this tribes among themselves and with others like Algonquin tribes. Hiawatha who was one of the chief of Onondagas, a man of vision who put forwarded an idea of confederation to restore peace. This confederation will be surely a matter of interest for the students of politics and constitution as this confederation was par with our modern confederation of federal states. In this paper Onondagas has described the sincere efforts made by Hiawatha for this dream consideration. After going through the paper the reader will start admiring Hiawatha and his colleague Dekanawidah who made his dream a reality. We can conclude the people of the primitive age were intellects with high degree of reason and high spirits to learn and explore new things.

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