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The social sciences, the humanities and the natural sciences deal with anthropology whereby one can study every aspect of human and human culture. In the development of some of the latest interdisciplinary fields like Global studies, various ethnic studies and cognitive science anthropology has played a vital role. Anthropology cannot be said to be limited to primatology, regional analysis, ethnology, history, antiquity dealings and curator ship, paleontology, philology, etymology, genetics, philosophy, religious studies, fossil-hunting, exploring, documentary film-making. Exemplification of anthropology is not so easy since it deals with several types of endeavors.

Archaeology, anthropological linguistics, biological or physical anthropology, and social anthropology or cultural anthropology are the four sub fields of Anthropology. Different methodologies and techniques are used even though there is a tendency of these fields being overlapped. Archaeology is the most significant field of anthropology which deals with an extensive study of human culture and biology. Archaeology helps to study past human behavior through the examination of material remains of previous human societies. The human communications which are verbal or non verbal, languages, the rapport between language and culture, the variations of languages and its social uses etc, can be comprehended by Linguistic anthropology. It brings a linkage between the linguistic structures and progressions to the interpretation of socio-cultural processes. Pragmatics, sociolinguistics, cognitive linguistics, semiotics, narrative analysis and discourse analysis are often illustrated by Linguistic anthropologists. Descriptive linguistics and historical linguistics are the sub fields of Linguistic anthropology. The former describes the structure of grammars and lexicons for unstudied languages where as the latter defines renovation of past languages whereby the present languages have been originated. Ethno linguistics and sociolinguistics are also the sub fields of Linguistic anthropology. The language, culture and their relationship is mainly concerned by ethno linguistics where as social functions of language are dealt within sociolinguistics. Apart from this, the progression of the parts of the brain dealing language is also a subject of matter concerned by Anthropological linguistics.

The assumption as to how the human beings occupied the globe and also the clarification with regard to the geographical human variation and race has been given by Biological anthropology, or physical anthropology to some extent. An evolutionary framework is used for studying human population. Sometimes human ecology is associated with socio biology by biological anthropologists. The phenomena of the existing human population are understood by evolutionary theory in human ecology. Primatology, is a part of biological anthropology that deals with primate (apes) populations. Field biology and ecology is being used by primatologists as methodology for their research work. Study of culture is called Cultural anthropology otherwise called socio-cultural anthropology or social anthropology. It is supported mainly by ethnography which is a monograph or a book used as a methodology for purpose of research. It depends mainly on participant-observation which helps in understanding a culture from an emic point of view. Different cultures are systematically compared in ethnology. Cultural anthropology manly emphasizes on relationship and social organization. Law and conflict resolution, patterns of consumption and exchange, childrearing and socialization, religion, myth, symbols, values, etiquette, economic and political organization, games, food, festivals, language, technology, infrastructure, gender relations, ethnicity, worldview, sports, material culture, music, nutrition, and recreation, all these and such other things are matter of concern by Cultural anthropology. Cultural anthropology is known by the name ethnology in some countries of Europe. The extensive practical application of anthropology and its various branches because of its holistic nature in research work is called applied anthropology. Ubiquitous is one such example of applied anthropology. Anthropologists are employed by marketing professionals for resolving favorable placement of advertising whereas military expeditions employ them for discerning deliberate cultural footholds. In order to fight poverty humanitarian agencies depend on anthropological insight.




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